Categories
types of cancer

Base of tongue cancer

Overview

Base of tongue cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. The base is the back one-third of the tongue that extends down the throat. Cancers of this type are usually squamous cell carcinomas, which form in the thin, flat cells that line the larynx. Squamous cells also make up the top layer of skin and other body parts such as the lungs and oesophagus. The location of the tongue cancer impacts the treatment plan. Tongue cancer can occur:

  • In the mouth, where it may be more likely to be seen and felt (oral tongue cancer). This type of tongue cancer tends to be diagnosed when the cancer is small and more easily removed through surgery.
  • In the throat, at the base of the tongue, where tongue cancer may develop with few signs and symptoms (hypopharyngeal tongue cancer). Ear pain is the only early symptom. Base of tongue cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and this association has a profound effect on the prognosis and treatment of this cancer.

Symptoms

Base of tongue cancer shows very few signs and symptoms in its early stages. It is for this reason that this cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when the tumour is larger and the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes in the neck.

A few patients show symptoms, while a few do not show any symptoms. It is important to see a doctor if any of the below symptoms are experienced persistently:

  • Swallowing difficulties
  • Difficulty moving the tongue
  • Pain in the ear
  • A sense of fullness in the throat
  • Sore throat
  • White or red patches on the tongue or lining of the mouth
  • Lump in the back of the mouth, throat, or neck
  • Pain or sores in the mouth
  • Changes in the voice, such as hoarseness
  • Causes

    The exact causes of the base of tongue cancers are not fully known. However, certain risk factors can increase the chances of developing this cancer. It is also important to note that not everyone with the risk factors will develop tongue cancer, and people who don’t have risk factors can develop the disease.

  • Consumption of Tobacco and Alcohol: Smoking and alcohol drinking is reported to be a direct risk factor for tongue cancer. Studies show that smokers are 5 times more likely to develop tongue cancer than non-smokers.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: Infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 increase the risk of tongue cancer.
  • Age: This cancer is common in older age groups, starting from age 40 and above. However, young people may also develop this cancer.
  • Gender: This cancer is twice as common among men.
  • Betel nut chewing: WHO has considered betel nut to be a carcinogen. Long term betel nit chewing can cause tongue cancer.
  • Diagnosis

    To confirm the diagnosis of the base of tongue cancer, the patient might be asked to undergo one or more tests discussed below:

  • Laryngoscopy: During this procedure, a laryngoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a lighted camera), is inserted through the nose or mouth for a closer look into the throat at the base of the tongue. If the doctor suspects abnormality, he/she may also collect the tissue samples during this procedure for further testing.
  • Barium Swallow: The patient is made to swallow liquid barium and is made to undergo an X-ray. Barium swallows help in detecting any abnormalities in the throat.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests like CT scan, MRI and PET scan help in obtaining detailed images of the mouth and throat, which help in detecting cancer masses, if any.
  • Biopsy: A small tissue sample is collected from the suspicious area and sent to the laboratory. These cells are examined for HPV infection and signs of cancer.
  • Treatment

    The treatment plan for the base of tongue cancer is made considering various factors like the stage of the cancer, the location, its aggressiveness, patient’s age and the overall condition of the patient. Following are key treatment modalities used in treating tongue cancer.

    Surgery: Surgery involves the removal of the tumours and surrounding lymph nodes if the cancer is in its advanced stages. In the case of early-stage cancers or small cancers, the surgery leaves little cosmetic or functional changes in the mouth region. However, in the case of larger tumours, the surgery may affect the patient’s speech and swallowing abilities. In these situations, the cancer surgery is often followed by a reconstruction surgery, which helps in restoring speech and swallowing problems.

    Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is a treatment modality that stops cancer cells from dividing and slows the growth of the tumour. It also destroys cancer cells and shrinks tumours. Through advanced technology, the dose of radiation can be carefully adjusted such that the radiation is delivered to the target area precisely with least damage to the surrounding healthy tissues.

    Chemotherapy: During chemotherapy, specific chemicals are administered into the body, and these chemicals destroy the cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is usually prescribed in the following cases:

  • Along with radiotherapy as an alternative to surgery (called chemoradiation)
  • After surgery to decrease the risk of the relapse
  • To slow the growth of a tumour and control symptoms when the cancer cannot be completely treated (palliative treatment)
  • 613 replies on “Base of tongue cancer”

    When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time
    a comment is added I get three e-mails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove me from that service?
    Bless you!

    Here is my web blog; Bestautoservice

    is online pokies banned in united states, casino bonus uk and online casino united statesn dollars, or
    free united statesn roulette simulator

    my web-site: can you play blackjack with 3 players (Brittany)

    רטט – טכניקת הרטט מסייעת לשחרר ולהרגיע את הגוף באמצעות יישום של רעידות לפי מקצב באזור התפוס בגוף.

    חזרה על עיסוי מקצועי בתל אביב על בסיס קבוע, מסייעת לתחזק את הגוף ועל ידי כך,
    מביאה להקלה על כאבי השרירים גם
    בטווח הארוך. שיטה זו אף משפרת את זרימת הדם לאזור,
    ועל ידי כך מייעלת את תהליכי הניקוי וההזנה של השרירים התפוסים בפרט והגוף בכלל.

    על ידי כך, הקשה תורמת לתחושה
    של שלווה ולשחרור של שרירים תפוסים, על
    ידי ייעול תהליכי הניקיון שלהם באזור עצמו.
    מטרת העיסוי המפנק היא להפעיל לחץ על אזורים תפוסים כמו הגב, הכתפיים, הצוואר ואפילו הרגליים,
    במטרה לקדם תחושה של שלווה ושחרור הלחץ שמוטל
    על השרירים. ליטוף – עיסוי שוודי באזור תל אביב והמרכז מתחיל בסט של תנועות ליטוף עדינות, המורכב
    מסדרה של ליטופים עדינים ומעגליים, הנעשים לאורך כל הגוף
    ברמות משתנות של לחץ בהתאם לצורכי
    המטופל. עיסוי מפנק בתל אביב והמרכז מצריך
    הסרה מלאה של הבגדים, מלבד הפריטים התחתונים.
    פרטיות זה בהחלט שם המשחק, כאן לא תוכלו לפספס את הדברים
    לא כשמישהו בדק, עשה את ההשוואות והכול
    בכדי שלא תפספסו את העיקר- דירות בעלות היגיינה גבוהה,
    פינוקים אין סופיים ובעיקר אחריות מלאה שהן פרטיות ודיסקרטיות ברמה ללא פשרות.
    לישה – לאחר שהשרירים התחממו היטב, המעסה מתחיל ללוש
    את העור והשרירים, ותוך כך לוחץ
    על רקמות דקות בקצב, במטרה למתוח ולשחרר את השרירים.

    casino in british columbia united kingdom, free spins pokies in canada and best online casino canada no deposit
    bonus, or fully cashable no deposit bonus australia

    Feel free to visit my page; how to play the gambler;
    Wilbur,

    no deposit casino bonus codes cashable 2021 usa, difference between european roulette and united kingdom and play online usa roulette,
    or top 20 online casinos usa no deposit

    Feel free to surf to my homepage :: can antidepressants cause compulsive gambling
    (Staci)

    xpokies no deposit bonus codes australia 2021, real
    money online gambling canada and uk casino 10 no deposit,
    or canadian casino guide 2021 review

    Stop by my site: can compulsive gamblers be cured [Terese]

    united kingdom casino no deposit bonus codes 2021,
    casino winnings tax free in canada and las vegas usa casino online no
    deposit bonus codes, or online live roulette what to do at a casino
    besides gamble (Tina) usa

    latest online casino uk, real money australian online pokies and casino apps for real money
    australia, or dollar 5 deposit online casino united kingdom

    Here is my website what are the odds of winning blackjack in vegas (Christin)

    united kingdom online casino minimum deposit dollar 10, best canada
    online pokies and best casino games that don’t require internet, Robby,
    sites united states, or online real casino usa

    An intriguing discussion is definitely worth comment. I do think that you should publish more on this subject, it may not be a taboo subject but usually people do not talk about such subjects. To the next! All the best!!

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published.